SSC San Diego TD 627 Revision D,
Annotated Bibliography of Publications from the U.S. Navy's Marine Mammal Program, May 1998


Fish, Frank E. and Clifford A. Hui. 1991. Dolphin Swimming-A Review. Mammal Rev. 21 (4): 181- 195.

Discusses various aspects of dolphin hydrodynamics—drag minimization, propulsion, swimming speed and behavior.

Haun, J.E., E.W. Hendricks, F.R. Borkat, R.W. Kataoka, D.A. Carder, C.A. Dooley, E. Lindner, and M.W. Stromberg. 1993. Dolphin Hydrodynamics: FY83 and FY84 Report. NRaD TR 998.

Reports on four years of research into hydrodynamic adaptations available to the dolphin, including study of skin histology, bulk property measurements and skin pressure sensitivity and biopolymer characterization and synthesis. Histology work demonstrates dolphin skin potential to function as a drag reducing coating.

Haun, J. E., E. W. Hendricks, F. R. Borkat, R. W. Kataoka, D. A. Carder, and N. K. Chun 1983. Dolphin Hydrodynamics Annual Report, FY 82. NOSC TR 935, 82 pp.

Describes various studies undertaken in the course of an investigation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of dolphins.

Haun, J. E., and E. W. Hendricks. 1990. Hydrodynamics. In: Yearbook of Science and Technology - 1991. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, pp. 188-190.

Discusses dolphin skin morphology and effects on drag reduction.

Hendricks, E. W., and J. E. Haun. 1988. Dolphin Hydrodynamics. Physics Today 41 (1):S39.

Summary of past and recent investigations of dolphin hydrodynamics and drag reduction.

Hui, C. A. 1987. Power and Speed of Swimming Dolphins. Jour. Mammal. 68:126-132.

Analysis of measured swimming speeds for dolphins of the Stenella-Delphinus morphology, using a conservative hydrodynamics model and a metabolic rate 13.4 times the projected resting metabolic rate, indicated that energy expenditure was entirely within expected ranges and no extraordinary mechanisms are necessary to explain observations.

Lang, T. G. 1963. Porpoise, Whales, and Fish: Comparison of Predicted and Observed Speeds. Naval Engineers Jour. May 1963, pp. 437-441.

Concludes that reported speeds of cetaceans and fish can be explained by an unusual extent of laminar flow.

Lang, T. G., and D. A. Daybell. 1963. Porpoise Performance Tests in a Seawater Tank. NOTS TP 3063, 50 pp.

A hydrodynamic study conducted with a trained Lagenorhynchus obliquidens in a long seawater tank revealed no unusual physiological or hydrodynamic phenomena. Because the tank conditions may have affected the animal’s performance, further tests in the open sea were recommended.

Lang, T. G. 1966. Hydrodynamic Analysis of Cetacean Performance. In: Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises, K. S. Norris (ed.). Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley, CA., pp. 410-432.

A detailed discussion of cetacean hydrodynamic performance, presented at the First International Symposium on Cetacean Research held in Washington, DC in August 1963.

Lang, T. G. 1966. Hydrodynamic Analysis of Dolphin Fin Profiles. Nature 209:110-111.

Cross sections of dolphin fins were found to have a shape intermediate between two independently proposed hydrodynamic shapes believed to have superior characteristics.

Lang, T. G., and K. S. Norris. 1966. Swimming Speed of a Pacific Bottlenosed Porpoise. Science 151:588-590.

See next item.

Lang, T. G., and K. Pryor. 1966. Hydrodynamic Performance of Porpoises (Stenella attenuata). Science 152:531-533.

The above two papers describe open-ocean speed runs of trained porpoises. Top speeds recorded were 16.1 knots (Tursiops gilli) and 21.4 knots (Stenella attenuata). The results compared closely with highest predictions based on rigid-body drag calculations and estimated available power output.

Madigosky, W. M., G. F. Lee, J. Haun, F. Borkat, and R. Kataoka. 1983. Acoustic Surface Wave Measurements on Live Bottlenosed Dolphins. NSWC TR 83-312, 18 pp.

In connection with a hydrodynamics study, dolphin skin properties were measured by determining responses to acoustic surface waves generated at different locations on the dolphins.

Ridgway, S.H. and D.A. Carder. 1993. Features of Dolphin Skin with Potential Hydrodynamic Importance. IEEE Conf. on Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 12:83-88.

Microscopic examination of dolphin skin shows ridges that may be of hydrodynamic advantage.

Rohr, J., M.I. Latz, E. Hendricks, J.C. Nauen, and J. M. Stevenson. 1995. Flow Visualization of Dolphin Swimming Using Bioluminescent Marine Plankton. In: Flow Visualization VII, J. Crowder (ed.). Seventh International Symposium on Flow Visualization, Begell House, Inc., New York, pp. 34-39.

Interest in visualizing the flow field around a swimming dolphin is motivated by speculation that dolphins are able to maintain laminar flow around their bodies at high speeds. The present study indicates that naturally occurring bioluminescence can potentially be used as a flow diagnostic.

Williams, T.M., W.A. Friedl, M.L. Fong, R.M. Yamada, P. Sedivy and J.E. Haun. 1992. Travel at Low Energetic Cost by Swimming and Wave-Riding Bottlenose Dolphins. Nature. 355: 821-823.

Addresses previous speculation on energetic advantages from wave-riding by swimming dolphins through determination of the aerobic and anaerobic costs of swimming and wave-riding. Results indicate behavioral, physiological and morphological factors make swimming an economical form of high-speed travel for dolphins.

Williams, T.M. 1993. Swimming and Diving Energetics of Bottlenose Dolphins: Low Cost Locomotion by a Thinking Athlete. (Abs.) American Zoologist. 33 (5): 141A.

Study comparing different forms of aquatic locomotion (swimming and diving) for bottlenose dolphins. Results showed ascent and descent speeds of diving dolphins were often outside the maximum range speeds for animals swimming next to a boat. The study presents an energetic hypothesis regarding sinking versus swimming behaviors in diving marine mammals.

Williams, T.M., W.A. Friedl, J.E. Haun and N.K. Chun. 1993. Balancing Power and Speed in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Recent Advances in Marine Mammal Science. The Zoological Society of London. No. 66: 383-384.

Study examined the relationships among aerobic transport costs, oxygen stores and locomotor speed of bottlenose dolphins to determine the effects of hydrodynamic, energetic and physiological limitations on swimming and diving performance.

Williams, T.M., S.F. Shippee, K.L. Lawson, N.C. Chun, W.A. Friedl, and J.E. Haun. 1993. Non- Steady Swimming Increases Aerobic Dive Duration in Bottlenose Dolphins. (Abs.) Tenth Biennial Conf. on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Galveston, TX, Nov. 11-15, p. 113.

Reports on study of swimming strategies (wave-riding, efficient locomotor speeds) to determine whether they enabled the diving dolphin to conserve oxygen reserves during prolonged submergence. Results indicated interrupted swimming patterns (active swimming combined with passive gliding) may increase locomotor efficiency and prolong dive duration.