SSC San Diego TD 627 Revision D,
Annotated Bibliography of Publications from the U.S. Navy's Marine Mammal Program, May 1998


8. SURVEYS/TELEMETRY

Clarke, J. T., S. E. Moore, and D. K. Ljungblad. 1987. Observations of Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus) Calves in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea During the Autumn Migration, 1982-85. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 37: 287-293.

Analysis of sightings of 44 calves by geographic location, month, presence of adults, behavior, and ice cover.

Clarke, J. T., S. F. Moore, and D. K. Ljungblad. 1989. Observations on Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) Utilization Patterns in the Northeastern Chukchi Sea, July-October 1982-1987. Can. Jour. Zool. 67: 2646-2654.

A total of 821 gray whales were seen during aerial surveys. Monthly abundance was highest in July and lowest in October. Whales were usually seen feeding in open water and seldom in association with heavy ice. Calf abundance was highest in July.

Evans, W. E. 1970. Uses of Advanced Space Technology and Upgrading the Future of Oceanography. AIAA Paper No. 7-01273, 3 pp.

Two species of small whales equipped with small radio-telemetry packages so that their movements could be tracked have provided information on the animals’ physical environment as a function of depth. Further data have been derived on areas of high biologic productivity and underwater topographical features. Telemetering via satellite would greatly extend the utility of this technique to oceanography.

Evans, W. E. 1971. Orientation Behavior of Delphinids: Radio-telemetric Studies. In: Orientation: Sensory Basis, H. E. Adler (ed.). Annals, New York Acad. Sci., Vol. 188, pp. 142-160.

The movements and diving behavior of wild common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) were ascertained by means of small radio transmitters attached to the animals.

Evans, W. E., and J. S. Leatherwood. 1972. The use of an Instrumented Marine Mammal as an Oceanographic Survey Platform. NUC TP 331, 11 pp.

By a small radio transmitter attached to its dorsal fin, a Delphinus was tracked for 3 days. The radio signal, transmitted when the dolphin surfaced, provided data on duration and depth of dives, and indicated probable nocturnal feeding on organisms of the deep-scattering layer at depths to 846 feet.

Evans, W. E. 1974. Telemetering of Temperature and Depth Data from a Free-ranging Yearling California Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Mar. Fish. Rev. 36 (4):52-58.

A young female gray whale, held in captivity for a year, was released carrying a radiotelemetry package that transmitted depth of dive and temperature-at-depth data.

Harrison, R. J., and S. H. Ridgway. 1972. Telemetry in Experimental and Trained Dives by Seals. Proceedings, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Jour. Anat. 111 (3):491.

See Harrison and Ridgway, 1972 below.

Harrison, R. J., and S. H. Ridgway. 1972. Seals, Dolphins, and Diving. New Scientist, August 10, 1972, pp. 283-285.

Describes how diving responses can be monitored by radiotelemetry.

Harrison, R. J., S. H. Ridgway, and P. L. Joyce. 1972. Telemetry of Heart Rate in Seals. Nature 238:280.

Radiotelemetry devices were implanted in the hypodermis of the neck and back of gray seals to follow heart-rate changes in unrestrained seals diving on command. Bradycardia was found to be less marked during trained dives than in previously reported forced and restrained dives.

Hui, C. A. 1979. Undersea Topography and Distribution of Dolphins of the Genus Delphinus in the Southern California Bight. Jour. Mammal. 60:521-527.

Delphinus occurs more frequently in areas of high relief. Availability of prey species over areas of different relief may be a major factor influencing distribution patterns. Herd size is greater (median 250) from May to October when anchovies are the major diet component; from November to April the median aggregation size is 40.

Hui, C. A. 1985. Undersea Topography and the Comparative Distributions of Two Pelagic Cetaceans. Fish. Bull. 83:472--475.

The daytime distributions of pilot whales and common dolphins in the California Bight were found to be similar above undersea topography of high relief, but common dolphins occurred more frequently over areas of low relief. Differences in the distributions may be due to different foraging strategies.

Leatherwood, J. S. 1974. Aerial Observations of Migrating Gray Whales (Eschrichtius robustus) off Southern California, 1969-1972. Mar. Fish. Rev. 36 (4):45--49.

Presents data on movements, numbers, and distance from offshore, with details as to cows with calves and yearling animals observed.

Leatherwood, J. S., J. R. Gilbert, and D. G. Chapman. 1978. An Evaluation of Some Techniques for Aerial Censuses of Bottlenosed Dolphins. Jour. Wildlife Management. 42:239-250.

Discusses field procedures and analytical techniques based on surveys conducted off the coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Population estimates from strip censuses are given for several areas, and suggestions are made for future censuses of dolphins inhabiting inshore waters.

Leatherwood, J. S., L. J. Harrington-Coulombe, and C. L. Hubbs. 1978. Relict Survival of the Sea Otter in Central California and Evidence of its Recent Redispersal South of Point Conception. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 77:109-115.

Details the past distribution of the sea otter; its apparent extirpation south of Alaska; the discovery of a remnant population in Monterey County, California, which has since proliferated; and recent sightings south of Point Conception.

Leatherwood, J. S. 1979. Aerial Survey of the Bottlenosed Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus) in the Indian and Banana Rivers, Florida. Fish. Bull. 77:47-59.

The population of dolphins in the rivers during the week of the survey (10-15 Aug 1977) was estimated to be 438 +/- 127. There were 60 sightings of manatees totaling 151 animals; no attempt was made to estimate the size of the manatee population.

Ljungblad, D. K. 1981. Aerial Surveys of Endangered Whales in the Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Northern Bering Sea. NOSC TD 449, 302 pp.

Describes aerial surveys and acoustic recordings of bowhead whales and other marine mammals from April to November 1980. Ice conditions radically altered the migration pattern seen in 1979.

Ljungblad, D. K., S. E. Moore, D. R. Van Schoik, and C. S. Winchell. 1982. Aerial surveys of Endangered Whales in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Northern Bering Seas. NOSC TD 486, 374 pp.

Aerial surveys, acoustic recordings, and behavioral observations of bowhead whales were made prior to and during the spring migration and again during the fall migration. Summer survey efforts concentrated on gray whale distribution and behavior.

Ljungblad, D. K. 1983. Interaction Between Offshore Geophysical Exploration Activities and Bowhead Whales in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, Fall 1982. Jour. Acoust. Soc. Am.. 74 (Suppl. 1): 555.

Aerial surveys, supplemented by the use of sonobuoys, revealed no major changes in the behavior of bowheads exposed to seismic exploration sounds.

Ljungblad, D. K., S. E. Moore, and D. R. Van Schoik. 1984. Aerial Surveys of Endangered Whales in the Northern Bering, Eastern Chukchi, and Alaskan Beaufort Seas, 1983: With a 5-Year Review, 1979-1983. NOSC TR 995, 370 pp.

Presents survey results and observations on bowhead distribution, relative abundance, migration patterns, general behavior, and sound production. Includes survey results and observations on gray whale distribution, relative abundance, and general behavior for July.

Ljungblad, D. K., S. E. Moore, J. T. Clarke, D. R. Van Schoik, and J. C. Bennett. 1985. Aerial Surveys of Endangered Whales in the Northern Bering, Eastern Chukchi, and Alaskan Beaufort Seas, 1984: With a 6-Year Review, 1979-1984. NOSC TR 1046. 302 pp. incl. appendices.

See Ljungblad, et al., 1986, NOSC TR 1111, below.

Ljungblad, D. K., S. E. Moore, J. T. Clarke, and J. C. Bennett. 1986. Aerial Surveys of Endangered Whales in the Northern Bering, Eastern Chukchi, and Alaskan Beaufort Seas, 1985: With a 7-Year Review, 1979-1985. NOSC TR 1111, 407 pp. incl. appendices.

Both of the above items present survey results and observations on bowhead distribution, relative abundance, migration patterns, general behavior, and sound production for spring and fall months. Survey results and observations on gray whale distribution, relative abundance, and general behavior are also included, along with sightings of other marine mammals.

Ljungblad, D. K., S. E. Moore, and J. T. Clarke. 1986. Assessment of Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus) Feeding Patterns in the Alaskan Beaufort and Northeastern Chukchi Seas via Aerial Surveys, Fall 1979-1984. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 36:265-272.

Feeding bowheads occurred in larger groups, in shallower water, and in lighter ice cover than nonfeeding whales. Among feeding whales, differences in group size at different locations and in feeding patterns may have been due to the type of prey and its distribution, abundance, and location in the water column.

Ljungblad, D. K., S. E. Moore, D. R. Van Schoik. 1986. Seasonal Patterns of Distribution, Abundance, Migration and Behavior of the Western Arctic Stock of Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Alaskan seas. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. Special Issue 8:177-205.

A detailed analysis of sightings during spring and fall months between 1979 and 1983.

Ljungblad, D. K., S. E. Moore, J. T. Clarke, and J. C. Bennett. 1987. Distribution, Abundance, Behavior, and Bioacoustics of Endangered Whales in the Alaskan Beaufort and Eastern Chukchi Seas, 1979-1986. NOSC TR 1177, 362 pp. incl. appendices.

Report covers survey results and observations on bowhead distribution, relative abundance and density, migration patterns, general behavior, and sound production recorded from air-dropped sonobuoys and from a station established on Barter Island. Survey results and observations on gray whale distribution, relative abundance, and general behavior are included, along with incidental sightings of other marine mammals.

Moore, S. E., and D. K. Ljungblad. 1984. Gray Whales in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas: Distribution and Sound Production. In: The Gray Whale, M. L. Jones, S. L. Schwartz, and J. S. Leatherwood (eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 543-559.

Gray whale occurrence, distribution, behavior, and sound production were studied during aerial surveys in arctic waters in 1980 and 1981.

Moore, S. E., J. T. Clarke, and D. K. Ljungblad. 1986. A Comparison of Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus) Distribution, Abundance, Habitat Preference and Behavior in the Northeastern Chukchi Sea, 1982-1984. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 36:273-279.

On aerial surveys conducted from July to October, differences between the two species were observed with respect to distance from shore, in open water vs. near ice cover, shallowness of water, and incidence of feeding behavior.

Moore, S. E., D. K. Ljungblad, and D. R. Van Schoik. 1986. Annual Patterns of Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) Distribution, Abundance, and Behavior in the Northern Bering and Eastern Chukchi Seas, July 1980-1983. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. Special Issue 8:231-242.

Analysis of sightings, in the course of aerial surveys, of 1,543 gray whales with respect to distribution, estimated gross annual recruitment rate, behaviors, and sound production.

Reeves, R. R., D. K. Ljungblad, and J. T. Clarke. 1984. Bowhead Whales and Acoustic Seismic Surveys in the Beaufort Sea. Polar Record 22 (138):271-280.

Seismic survey activities were monitored in autumn 1982 for their possible effects on migrating bowheads. Distribution, behavior, and numbers of whales were recorded; one possible behavioral response to seismic shooting was observed.

Richardson, W. J., R. A. Davis, C. R. Evans, D. K. Ljungblad, and P. Horton. 1987. Summer Distribution of Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus) Relative to Oil Industry Activities in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, 1980-84. Arctic 40 (2):93-104.

Distribution of bowheads both outside and within the "main industrial area" varied from year to year. Their numbers decreased, whether from increasing industrial activity or from variations in the whales’ zooplankton prey is not clear.

Ridgway, S. H., R. J. Harrison, and P. L. Joyce. 1975. Sleep and Cardiac Rhythm in the Gray Seal. Science 187:553-555.

Brainwaves, heartbeat, and eye movements of seals sleeping underwater, on the surface, or when hauled out were recorded by radiotelemetry.

Ridgway, S. H., and P. L. Joyce. 1975. Studies on Seal Brain by Radiotelemetry. Rapp. P.-v. Reun Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 169:81-91.

Auditory-evoked potentials of the gray seal were used to obtain evoked response curves for auditory stimulation. Cortical-evoked response was most sensitive at 4 kHz in air and at 20-25 kHz underwater. Also includes EEG and EKG data on sleep in the gray seal, with observations of behavior.

Seeley, R. L., and J. N. Price. 1972. Underwater Electric Field Telemetry of Biophysical Data. IEEE Region Six Conf., 4 pp.

Describes problems of radiotelemetry of biophysical data from marine mammals and presents design information which provides solutions to some of these problems.

Sweeney, J. C., and J. L. Mattsson. 1974. Surgical Attachment of a Telemetry Device to the Dorsal Ridge of a Yearling California Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Mar. Fish. Rev. 36(4):20-22.

Describes technique by which an instrument package-mounting device was attached to the whale.

Turl, C. W. 1987. Winter Sightings of Marine Mammals in Arctic Pack Ice. Arctic 40(3):219-220.

In February and March, six species of marine mammals were sighted in the pack ice of Baffin Bay and Davis Strait.

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