SSC San Diego TD 627 Revision D,
Annotated Bibliography of Publications from the U.S. Navy's Marine Mammal Program, May 1998


5. BREEDING

Brook, F. D., Chow, T. Lam, and J. P. Schroeder. 1991. Ultrasound Imaging of the Male Reproductive Tract of the Pacific Bottlenosed Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and its Significance in Breeding Management. (Abs.) Brit. Jour. Radiology 64: 654.

New findings of a longitudinal study of dolphin testis size correlated with serum testosterone levels and a description of anatomical features visualized by ultrasonagraphy are presented basis for these differences.

Hill, H., and W. G. Gilmartin. 1977. Collection and Storage of Semen from Dolphins. In: Breeding Dolphins: Present Status. Suggestions for the Future, S. H. Ridgway and K. Benirschke (eds). A report to the Marine Mammal Commission. Natíl. Tech. Info. Serv. PB-273 673, pp. 205-210.

Discusses relevant considerations and provides details of techniques used.

Hui, C. A. 1977. Growth and Physical Indices of Maturity in the Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis). In: Breeding Dolphins: Present Status. Suggestions for the Future, S. H. Ridgway and K. Benirschke (eds.). A report to the Marine Mammal Commission. Natíl. Tech. Info. Serv. PB-273 673, pp. 231-260.

Describes growth patterns (as known) in delphinids and discusses the various physical features that provide indication of age or sexual maturity. A "Robustness Quotient" appears to provide a good indicator for female sexual maturity, while a "Flipper Index" (derived from radiographs showing a degree of epiphyseal fusion) provides an estimate of gonad development in males.

Judd, H. L., and S. H. Ridgway. 1977. Twenty-four Hour Patterns of Circulating Androgens and Cortisol in Male Dolphins. In: Breeding Dolphins: Present Status. Suggestions for the Future, S. H. Ridgway and K. Benirschke (eds.). A report to the Marine Mammal Commission. Natíl. Tech. Info. Serv. PB-273 673, pp. 269-277.

Ultradian and diurnal fluctuations of circulating testosterone were not found in two male Tursiops sampled every 20 minutes for 24 hours.

Keller, K. V. 1987. Training Atlantic Bottlenosed Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for Artificial Insemination. Proceedings, International Marine Animals Trainers Assocation Conference, Vancouver B. C., Canada, Oct. 27-31, 1986, pp. 22-24.

Describes the training of behaviors supporting research in breeding bottlenosed dolphins in captivity.

Kirby, V. L., and S. H. Ridgway. 1984. Hormonal Evidence for Spontaneous Ovulation of Captive Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus and Delphinus delphis). Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. Special Issue 6:459--464.

It was concluded that captive females of both species can exhibit spontaneous ovulation; can be anestrous for at least a one-year period; and can be polyestrous, with an observed maximum of 3 cycles/year for Tursiops and 7 cycles/year for Delphinus.

Ridgway, S. H., and R. F. Green. 1967. Evidence for a Sexual Rhythm in Male Porpoises. Norwegian Whaling Gazette 1:1-8.

Describes seasonal changes in the reproductive organs of two species of porpoises.

Ridgway, S. H., K. S. Norris, and L. H. Cornell. 1989. Some Considerations for Those Wishing to Propagate Platanistoid Dolphins. In: Biology and Conservation of River Dolphins, W.F. Perrin, R.L. Brownell, Jr., K. Zhou, and J. Liu (eds.). IUCN Species Survival Commission Occasional Paper No. 3, pp. 159-167.

Considers aspects of successful breeding programs with other dolphins (particularly Tursiops) and recommends approaches that might be relevant to propagation of endangered river dolphins.

Ridgway, S.H. 1995. The Tides of Change: Conservation of Marine Mammals. In: Conservation ofEndangered Species in Captivity: An Interdisciplinary Approach, E.F. Gibbons, B.S. Durrant and J. Demarest (eds.). State University of New York Press, Albany, pp. 407-424.

An overview of marine mammals--their current status in the wild, reproductive histories in marine mammal facilities, and breeding strategies for the future.

Schroeder, J. P., and K. V. Keller. 1989. Seasonality of Serum Testosterone Levels and Sperm Density in Tursiops truncatus. Jour. Exper. Zool. 249:316-321.

Blood and semen were collected at regular intervals over 28 months. Maximum sperm count and density and minimum serum testosterone levels coincided with the period of peak breeding activity.

Schroeder, J. P. 1990. Breeding Bottlenosed Dolphins in Captivity. In: The Bottlenosed Dolphin, J. S. Leatherwood and R. R. Reeves (eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 435-446.

A review of the captive breeding program at NOSC is presented. Reproductive physiology and the husbandry and management of a breeding herd of captive Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins are discussed.

Schroeder. J. P. 1990. Reproductive Aspects of Marine Mammals. In: Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine: Health, Disease, and Rehabilitation, L. A. Dierauf (ed.). CRC Press, Cleveland, OH, pp. 353-369.

A review of the reproductive natural history, biology and physiology of cetaceans and pinnipeds is presented, including veterinary science and medical techniques.

Schroeder, J. P., and K. V. Keller. 1990. Artificial Insemination of Bottlenosed Dolphins. In: The Bottlenosed Dolphin, J. S. Leatherwood and R. R. Reeves (eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 447-460.

The development of semen collection, cryopreservation, and artificial insemination techniques for dolphins is reported.

Schroeder, J. P. 1991. Reproduction in Marine Mammals. In: Captive Conservation of Endangered Species, J. Demarest, B. Durrant, and G. Gibbons (eds.). State University of New York Press, Albany, NY.

A review of reproductive biology of marine mammals with special emphasis on the applicability of new techniques to the most endangered species, the baiji.

Schroeder, J. P. 1991. Marine Mammal Reproduction. In: Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Vol. III, M. Fowler (ed.). Saunders Press, Philadelphia, PA.

A discussion of current veterinary medical and surgical techniques used in the care and management of captive marine mammals.

Schroeder, J.P. 1991. Ultrasound Imaging of the Male Reproductive Tract of the Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin and Its Significance in Breeding Management. 22nd Annual Meeting of the British Medical Ultrasound Society, London, Dec. 7, 1990. Pub. in British Jour. Radiology. July 1991.

Wood, F. G. 1977. Births of Porpoises at Marineland, Florida, 1939-1969, and Comments on Problems in Captive Breeding of Small Cetacea. In: Breeding Dolphins: Present Status. Suggestions for the Future, S. H. Ridgway and K. Benirschke (ed.). A report to the Marine Mammal Commission. Natíl. Tech. Info. Serv. PB-273 673, pp. 47-60.

Discusses behavioral factors, births to captive-born females, time of year births occurred, stillbirths, and infant mortalities, with relevant tables, including a listing of 40 births with dates, sex of calf, name of dam, place of conception (ocean or tank), parturition time, and additional details.

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