SSC San Diego TD 627 Revision D,
Annotated Bibliography of Publications from the U.S. Navy's Marine Mammal Program, May 1998


4. HEALTH CARE/NUTRITION/PATHOLOGY

Beleau, M. H., and W. G. Gilmartin. 1974. Antibiotic Serum Levels in Porpoises. Am. Zoo Vets. Annual Proceedings, pp. 119-127.

Serum levels of antibiotics commonly used in porpoises were determined.

Buck, C. D., and J. P. Schroeder. 1990. Public Health Significance of Marine Mammal Diseases. In: Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine: Health, Disease, and Rehabilitation, L.A. Dierauf (ed.). CRC Press, Cleveland, OH, pp. 163-173.

A review of reported cases of humans infected with microorganisms acquired from direct contact with various marine mammals is presented.

Cartee, R.E., B.W. Gray, J. John and S.H. Ridgway. 1995. B-Mode Ultrasound Evaluation of Dolphin Skin. Jour. Diagnostic Medical Sonography. 11: 76-80.

Skin specimens from 10 dolphins were studied with B-mode ultrasonography. The epidermal and hypodermal layers were defined, measured, and compared with measurements of actual tissue and with histologic measurements. B-mode measurements were found to be accurate and to provide visually acceptable information for evaluating health status of these animals. The detection of a skin parasite by B-mode ultrasonography is also presented.

Cartee, R.E., R. Tarpley, K. Mahoney, S.H. Ridgway and P.L. Johnson. 1995. A Case of Cystic Adrenal Disease in a Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis). Jour. Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 26 (2): 293-297.

Bilateral adrenal cysts were discovered in a common dolphin during a routine necropsy. The dolphin appeared to be a mature female with immature reproductive structures. The adrenals were removed, scanned ultrasonographically, sectioned, and stained. The occurrence of adrenal cysts in humans and other animals is reviewed.

Castellini, M.A. and T.M. Williams. 1993. Blood Chemistries and Body Condition of Steller Sea Lion Pups at Marmot Island, Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 9 (2): 202-208.

As part of a project assessing blood chemistry and body condition of pinnipeds in and around Alaskan waters, this effort studied whether declining Steller sea lion population might be attributable to significant metabolic disorders. Four indicators of such disorders are addressed: hydration state, blood metabolic chemistry, blood oxygen transport and blubber depth. Concludes blood chemistries and body condition of newborns were within normal ranges in areas of the stable and declining Steller sea lion populations.

Cates, M. B., and J. P. Schroeder. 1986. The Nutrition of Acclimated vs Newly Captured Tursiops truncatus. Aquatic Mammals 12: 17-20.

Daily food intake with respect to weight and species of fish fed was recorded as kcal/g of fish dry mailer for two groups of dolphins, one in captivity for over six years, the other newly caught in the Gulf of Mexico and transported to Hawaii. The new animals adapted readily to the established feeding regimen.

Cates, M. B., L. Kaufman, J. H. Grabau, J. M. Pletcher, and J. P. Schroeder. 1986. Blastomycosis in an Atlantic Bottlenosed Dolphin. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 189: 1148-1150.

A lethargic, anorexic dolphin with a cranial abscess appeared to respond to treatment but died after four weeks. Upon necropsy, Blastomyces dermatitidis was found in all major organs.

Colgrove, G. S., T. R. Sawa, J. T. Brown, P. F. McDowell, and P. E. Nachtigall. 1975. Necrotic Stomatitis in a Dolphin. Jour. Wildlife Diseases 11: 460-464.

Necrotic stomatitis of undetermined etiology was found in an Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin. The case history, treatment, and hematologic findings are described.

Colgrove, G. S. 1975. A Survey of Erysipelothrix insidiosa Agglutinating Antibody Titres in Vaccinated Porpoises. Jour. Wildlife Diseases 11 (2): 234-236.

Studies of antibody levels in the blood of porpoises previously vaccinated against the disease.

Colgrove, G. S. and G. Migaki. 1976. Cerebral Abscess Associated with Stranding in a Dolphin. Jour. Wildlife Diseases 12: 271-274.

A captive bottlenosed dolphin, which beached itself in the shallows of its enclosure and later died, was found to have an abscess in the right cerebral hemisphere. Examination of the brain revealed a pyogenic meningoencephalitis.

Colgrove, G. S. 1978. Suspected Transportation-Associated Myopathy in a Dolphin. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 173 (9): 1121-1123.

Evidence suggesting capture myopathy (CM), a potentially fatal condition associated with capture or transport of wildlife, was found in a Pacific bottlenosed dolphin following a routine transportation procedure. With treatment, the animal recovered. It is speculated that "capture shock" in dolphins may have features in common with CM.

Colgrove, G. S. 1978. Stimulation of Lymphocytes from a Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) by Phytomitogens. Am. Jour. Vet. Res. 39: 141-144.

Dolphin lymphocytes responded (by increased thymidine incorporation) to three phytomitogens, of which one, concanavalin, consistently produced the highest degree of stimulation. Such stimulation could enhance the dolphin’s immune response.

Dailey, M. D. 1969. Stictodora ubelakeri, A New Species of Heterophylid Trematode from the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus). Bull. So. Calif Acad. Sci. 68 (2):82-85.

Describes a new species of parasitic flatworm.

Dailey, M. D., and S. H. Ridgway. 1976. A Trematode from the Round Window of an Atlantic Bottlenosed Dolphin’s Ear. Jour. Wildlife Diseases.12:45-47.

A fluke was found attached to the round window of a dolphin’s ear. The presence of the fluke could impair hearing.

Dailey, M. D., and W. G. Gilmartin. 1980. Diagnostic Key to the Parasites of Some Marine Mammals. NOSC TD 295, 37 pp.

A key, with illustrations, for identification of parasites of marine mammals studied by the Navy.

DeLong, R. L., W. G. Gilmartin, and J. G. Simpson. 1973. Premature Births in California Sea Lions: Association with High Organochlorine Pollutant Residual Levels. Science 181: 1168-1170.

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues were two to eight times higher in tissues of premature parturient females and pups than in similar tissues of full-term parturient females and pups collected in 1970.

Diamond, S. S., D. E. Ewing, and G. A. Cadwell. 1979. Fatal Bronchopneumonia and Dermatitis Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an Atlantic Bottlenosed Dolphin. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 175 (9): 984-987.

A female Tursiops truncatus captured off Florida ate well and swam normally but consistently lost weight and developed epidermal necrosis. Nodules developed over entire body surface. Pseudomas aeruginosa isolated from lesions suspected as etiologic agent. Researchers theorized animal’s weakened condition at time of capture provided opportunistic P. aeruginosa a fertile environment to proliferate.

Diamond, S. S., C. P. Raflo, M. H. Beleau, and G. A. Cadwell. 1980. Edema Disease in a California Sea Lion. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 177 (9):808-810.

Describes features and identifies probable causative organism of edema disease, similar to that occurring in swine, that was diagnosed in a sea lion.

Ewalt, D.R., J.B. Payeur, B.M. Martin, D.R. Cummins and W.G. Miller. 1994. Characteristics of a Brucella Species from a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Jour. Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 6: 448-452.

A culture isolated from an aborted bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus fetus was characterized. The protein profiles were markedly different from the protein profiles of reference strains of Brucella species. Biochemical and oxidative metabolism profiles indicated that the isolate belongs in the genus Brucella, but the profiles did not match that of any established species or biovars. This isolate may be an atypical strain of a recognized Brucella species or a new biovar or a new species of Brucella.

Fujioka, R. S., S. B. Greco, M. B. Cates, and J. P. Schroeder. 1988. Vibrio damsela from Wounds in Bottlenosed Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Dis. Aquat. Orgs. 4:1-8.

Different Vibrio bacteria were recovered from healthy skin and slow-healing wounds of dolphins and from surrounding sea pen water in Hawaii. Vibrio damsela predominated in samples from wounds and is identified as the probable primary bacterium causing wound infections in dolphins.

Geraci, J. R. and S. H. Ridgway. 1991. On Disease Transmission Between Dolphins and Humans. Marine Mammal Science 7:191-194.

The authors review the literature on dolphin disease transmission. From their own experience and from the literature reviewed, they conclude that through close association with dolphins people are just as safe, and probably more so, than through association with companion animals such as dogs.

Gilmartin, W. G., J. F. Allen, and S. H. Ridgway. 1971. Vaccination of Porpoises (Tursiops truncatus) Against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Infection. Jour. Wildlife Diseases 7:292-295.

A live product was found to stimulate antibody production better than the killed bacterin. An immunization schedule utilizing an initial exposure to the bacterin with subsequent exposures to the live vaccine product is proposed.

Gilmartin, W. G., R. L. Delong, A. W. Smith, J. C. Sweeney, B. W. DeLappe, R. W. Risebrough, L. A. Griner, M. D. Dailey, and D. B. Peakall. 1976. Premature Parturition in the California Sea Lion. Jour. Wildlife Diseases 12:104-114.

The data suggested an interrelationship of disease agents and environmental contaminants as the cause of premature parturition.

Gilmartin, W. G., P. M. Vainik, and V. M. Neill. 1979. Salmonellae in Feral Pinnipeds Off the Southern California Coast. Jour. Wildlife Diseases. 15:511-514.

Rectal swabs were collected from 90 northern fur seal and 50 California sea lion pups on San Miguel Jsland. Three Salmonella serotypes were recovered from 33 percent of the fur seals and 40 percent of the sea lions.

Hall, J. D., W. G. Gilmartin, and J. L. Mattsson. 1971. Investigation of a Pacific Pilot Whale Stranding on San Clemente Island. Jour. Wildlife Diseases 7: 324-327.

From a stranding of 28 pilot whales, information was obtained on their bacteriology, reproductive tissue, histopathology, liver mercury, and DDE levels. It was concluded that the stranding was a natural event, not precipitated by any pathological condition

Heath, M., S. Ridgway, M. Malik, J. Thomas and W.G. Miller. 1994. Plasma Catecholamines in Bottlenose Dolphin in Warm and Cool Water. The Physiologist. 37: A59.

Plasma epinephrine (EPI) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) were somewhat lower in dolphins acclimated to 25°C water than those acclimated to 15-20°C water. Dolphins showed less than a 2.5 fold increase in NE when moved from warm (25°C) to cooler (15-20°C) water and these levels returned to baseline within 12 weeks of the move. However, this increase in NE is small when compared to the 6-10 fold increase observed in other mammals during severe cold stress. Further studies are needed to determine if plasma NE may be a potential indicator of the magnitude of thermal stress in dolphins.

Hui, C. A., and S. H. Ridgway. 1978. Survivorship Patterns in Captive Killer Whales (Orcinus orca). Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 77:45-51.

Captive killer whales were found to have an overall mortality rate of 4.7 percent per year, with females having a higher rate (7 percent) than males (2.1 percent), and larger females having a shorter captive life span than smaller females. It is suggested that capture stress may be a significant mortality factor; less stressful capture procedures may increase captive life span.

Jensen, E., W. Van Bonn and S. Ridgway. 1996. Advances in Tursiops Gastoenterology. 1996. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conf., Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, Nov. 1996.

A succinct description of contemporary diagnostics and therapeutics in cetacean gastrointestinal disease. Includes description of normal anatomy and motility.

Johnston, D. G., and S. H. Ridgway. 1969. Parasitism in Some Marine Mammals. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 155 (7):1064-1072.

Case histories of parasitism in porpoises and sea lions.

Kamolnick, T., M. Reddy, C. Curry, R. Tarpley and S. Ridgway. 1993. Induced Lactation and Relactation in Tursiops truncatus and Fat Content of Milk Collected with a Dolphin Milking Device. 21st Annual IMATA Conf., Kailua-Kona, HI, Nov. 7-12, p.21.

Milk was collected from two Tursiops that were induced to lactate by the presence of orphaned calves; the milk was analyzed for fat content.

Linnehan, R.M., R.W. Ulrich, S.H. Ridgway and J.F. McBain. 1992. Determination of Enrofloxacin Serum Activity and Dosage in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). 23rd Annual Conf. of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, Hong Kong, May 18-22, 1992. 23:36.

Eight adult Tursiops truncatus were given a single dose of orally administered enrofoxacin dosed at 5 mg/kg body weight. Based upon the observed data, the average half-life of enrofloxacin in the study animals was approximately 7 hours with a range from 3.4 to 11 hours. Absorption was somewhat variable with the point of maximal serum concentration ranging from 2 to 8 hours following a single dose. The variation in absorption can most likely be attributed to individual differences in the storage and digestion of the fish ration containing the drug dose within the compartmentalized cetacean stomach.

Martin, J. H., P. D. Elliott, V. C. Anderlini, D. Girvin, S. A. Jacobs, R. W. Hisebrough, R. L. Delong, and W. G. Gilmartin. 1976. Mercury-Selenium-Bromine Imbalance in Premature Parturient California Sea Lions. In: Marine Biology. Springer Verlag Publ., New York, pp. 91-104.

Livers and kidneys from 10 normal parturient and 10 premature parturient mothers and their pups were analyzed for 13 trace and major elements. The data suggested a very strong relationship between Hg, Se, and Br in the normal animals but a Br imbalance, in relation to Se and Hg, in the abnormal mothers and their pups. Details and significance of these and other findings are discussed.

Mattsson, J. L., and R. L. Seeley. 1974. Simple Clinical Temperature Telemetry System for Pinnipeds. Jour. Wildlife Diseases 10:267-271.

A radiotelemetry pill was used to monitor core body temperature of sea lions kept in an enclosure. Mean core temperature was found to be 38.10 C.

Meck, S., E. Jensen and W. Van Bonn. 1995. Health Risks Associated with Pica: A Craving for and Possible Ingestion of Unnatural Articles. 23rd Annual IMATA Conf., Las Vegas, NV, 1995, p. 23.

Paper discusses the approach to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pica.

Medway, W., J. G. McCormick, S. H. Ridgway, and F. H. Crump. 1970. Effects of Prolonged Halothane Anesthesia on Some Cetaceans. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 157 (5):576-582.

After prolonged halothane anesthesia (up to 24 hours) variable histologic changes were found, but were judged not to be significant. Plasma enzyme activities monitored did not indicate significant liver damage.

Migaki, G., R. D. Gunnels, and H. W. Casey. 1978. Pulmonary Cryptococcosis in an Atlantic Bottlenosed Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Lab. Animal Science 28:603-606.

Pulmonary cryptococcosis was diagnosed in a seven-year-old dolphin that had been in captivity for about four years. This was the first report of this disease in a cetacean.

Miller, R. M., and S. H. Ridgway. 1963. Clinical Experiences with Dolphins and Whales. Small Animal Clinician 3 (4):189-193.

Diagnosis and treatment of diseases found in dolphins and whales.

Miller, W.G. 1990. Ocular Photography as a Clinical Diagnostic Tool in Marine Mammal Medicine. 21st Annual Conf. of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, Vancouver, B.C., May 1990, 21:147.

Describes techniques for use of high quality medical photographic equipment in assisting in ophthalmic exams of marine mammals, value of photos as a permanent dated record for later detailed analysis, and shortcomings of current equipment in obtaining sharp retinal images.

Miller, W.G. and R.J. Tarpley. 1991. An Investigation of Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Deaths in East Matagorda Bay, Texas in January 1990. 22nd Annual Conf. of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, Marineland, FL, May 12-16 1991, 22:39.

The January 1990 acute dolphin mortality event resulted in the deaths of 24 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) within East Matagorda Bay, Texas. The December 1989 severe freeze resulted in devastation of the dolphin's most likely major food source, the striped mullet. The dolphins’ emaciated condition, substantial reduction in blubber thickness, lack of food in their stomachs, and the fish freeze-kill and bio- mass data suggest, in addition to any direct effects of the extreme cold, that decimation of the food resource contributed to this event.

Miller, W.G. 1992. An Investigation of Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus Deaths in East Matagorda Bay, Texas, January 1990. Fish. Bull. 90:791-797.

See Miller and Tarpley, 1991, above.

Miller, W.G. 1994. Diagnosis and Treatment of Uric Acid Renal Stone Disease in Tursiops truncatus. 25th Annual Conf. of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine. Vallejo, CA, May 11-14, 1994, 25:22.

Renal stone disease has been diagnosed with ultrasonography and/or radiology and clinical pathology. Two cases have presented with concomitant glomerulonephritis in addition to renal stone disease, and renal cysts have also been observed. Long term treatment has consisted primarily of increased fluid intake with allopurinol.

Miller, W.G. 1995. Digital Recording of the Electrocardiogram from Bottlenose Dolphins Tursiops truncatus. 26th Annual Conf. of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine. Mystic, CT, May 16-10, 1995, 26:44.

Electrocardiograms were recorded from bottlenose dolphins using an IBM compatible laptop computer, a preamplifier and a "Smart Heart" 3 lead personal heart rate monitor with Windows software.

Miller, W.G. 1995. First Case Report of Brucella Abortion in a Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus. 26th Annual Conf. of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, Mystic, CT, May 16-10, 1995, 26:46.

The death of a Tursiops truncatus fetus is attributed to Brucella. Microbiology results combined with specific PCR results suggest this is a new species, for which the name Brucella delphini is suggested. Our findings, together with others, suggest that dolphin Brucellosis is a naturally-occurring disease that could adversely impact reproduction in cetaceans.

Miller, W., W. Van Bonn, E. Jensen, S. Ridgway, M. Nowacki, F. Hall and G. Visvesvara. 1996. First Case Report--Pulmonary Amebiasis in a Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus. 27th Annual Conf. of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, Chattanooga, TN, May 11-15, 1996, 27:93-94.

Describes a case of pulmonary ameba infestation in a bottlenose dolphin. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed this ameba was antigenically dissimilar to 8 different amebic antisera tested including Vahlkampfia avara. Believed to be the first report of an infection of a dolphin caused by a small free-living ameba.

Myhre, B. A., J. G. Simpson, and S. H. Ridgway. 1971. Blood Groups in the Atlantic Bottlenosed Porpoise (Tursiops truncatus). Soc. Expl. Biol. Med. 137:404-407.

A study of porpoise blood demonstrated three blood groups. Transfusions must be made with blood matching that of the recipient.

Myrick, A. C. Jr., W. E. Stuntz, S. H. Ridgway, and D. K. Odell. 1987. Hypocalcemia in Spotted Dolphins (Stenella attenuata) Chased and Captured by a Purse Seiner in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. (Abs.). Seventh Biennial Conf. on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Society of Marine Mammalogy, Miami, FL., p. 49.

Blood samples from dolphins that had been chased in tuna sets were tested for calcium level. These levels were found to be low compared to previously published values on healthy dolphins. It is possible that the observed hypocalcemia was due to the stress of chase and capture.

Nachtigall, P. E., J. L. Pawloski, J. P. Schroeder, and S. Sinclair. 1990. Successful Maintenance and Research with a Formerly Stranded Risso’s Dolphin (Grampus griseus). Aquatic Mammals 16 (1):8-13.

The rehabilitation of a stranded Grampus is described. Values for blood parameters are listed. Subsequent research with the animal is described.

Palmer, C., J. P. Schroeder, R. S. Fujioka, and J. Douglas. 1991. Staphyloccus aureus Infection in Newly Captured Pacific Bottlenosed Dolphins. Jour. of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 22 (3):330-338.

The diagnostic tests employed to identify the origin of Staph organisms isolated from dolphins captured around the Hawaiian Islands are described.

Pawloski, J. L., and P. E. Nachtigall. 1988. Simultaneous Measurement of Oral and Rectal Temperatures in a Nonrestrained Atlantic Bottlenosed Dolphin. (Abs.) Annual IMATA Conf., San Antonio, TX.

Utilizing a specialized mouthpiece, safe and accurate oral temperatures were measured in an Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin concurrently while measuring the animal’s rectal body temperature. These data were collected on a routine basis with an animal trained specifically for this task.

Payeur, J.B. D.R. Ewalt, B.M. Martin, D.R. Cummins and W.G. Miller. 1992. Characteristics of a Brucella Species from a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). 35th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Louisville, KY, Nov. 1992, p. 43.

A culture isolated from an aborted bottlenose dolphin fetus was characterized. The protein profiles were markedly different from the protein profiles of reference strains of Brucella species. This isolate may be an atypical strain of a recognized species or a new biovar or new species of Brucella.

Reddy, M.L., P. Kamolnick, D. Skaar, C. Curry and S.H. Ridgway. 1991. Bottlenose Dolphins: Energy Consumption During Pregnancy, Lactation, and Growth. 19th Annual IMATA Conf., Vallejo, CA, Nov. 4-8, 1991, pp. 30-37.

Energy consumption measured in kilocalories was monitored during pregnancy, lactation and early growth.

Reddy, M, T. Kamolnick, C. Curry, D. Skaar and S. Ridgway. 1992. Energy Requirements for the Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, in Relation to Sex, Age and Reproductive Status. 20th Annual IMATA Conf., Grand Bahamas, Nov. 1-6, 1992, p. 23.

Calorie consumption was tracked for 16 Tursiops truncatus at different stages of growth and reproductive status to determine their caloric requirements.

Reddy, M.L. and S. Ridgway. 1993. Organochlorines in Milk from Varied Stages of Lactation of Trained Tursiops truncatus. Tenth Biennial Conf. on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Galveston, TX, Nov. 11-15, 1993, p. 90.

Organochlorine residues were measured in milk from various stages of lactation of five healthy trained Tursiops truncatus.

Reddy, M., S. Ridgway and W. Van Bonn. 1993. Factors to Consider When Determining Diets for Pregnant and Lactating Bottlenose Dolphins. 21st Annual IMATA Conf., Kailua-Kona, HI, Nov. 7-12, 1993, p. 21.

Presentation discusses ration formulation during gestation and lactation for dolphins, especially in regard to calcium levels in various fish species.

Reddy, M. and S. Ridgway. 1994. What the Heck are Organochlorines and What Are They Doing in My Dolphin’s Milk? 22nd Annual IMATA Conf., Tacoma, WA, Nov. 6-11, 1994, p. 16.

Milk from healthy reproducing bottlenose dolphins was collected and analyzed for organochlorine residues.

Reddy, M., T. Kamolnick, C. Curry, D. Skaar and S. Ridgway. 1994. Energy Requirements for the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in Relation to Sex, Age and Reproductive Status. In: Marine Mammals: Public Display and Research. 1(1): 26-31.

Calorie consumption was tracked for 16 Tursiops truncatus at different stages of growth and reproductive status to determine their caloric requirements.

Reddy, M.L. and S. Ridgway. 1995. Values of Some Organochlorines in the Blubber, Blood, Milk and Calves of Live Tursiops truncatus. 11th Biennial Conf. on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Orlando, FL, Dec. 14-18, p. 96.

Organochlorine residues were measured in blubber, blood, milk and calves of live, healthy, trained Tursiops truncatus.

Ridgway, S. H. 1965. Medical Care of Marine Mammals. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 147 (10):1077-1085.

An account of experience gained in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of marine mammals.

Ridgway, S. H., and D. G. Johnston. 1965. Two Interesting Disease Cases in Wild Cetaceans. Am. Jour. Vet. Res. 26 (112):771-775.

A Pacific common dolphin (Delphinus), which stranded itself on a beach, was found to be infested with larval tapeworm cysts, and unidentified ova were found in absceses in the brain.

Ridgway, S. H. 1967. Anesthetization of Porpoises for Major Surgery. Science 158 (3800): 510-512.

Account of a technique for achieving deep anesthesia in porpoises. Major surgery (ovario-hysterectomy) has been performed with complete recovery.

Ridgway, S. H., and J. G. Simpson. 1967. Anesthesia and Restraint for the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus). Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 155 (7):1059-1063.

Describes a technique for anesthetizing sea lions, and the configuration of a unique restraining cage which enables the animal to be examined, treated, or anesthetized without harm to either the sea lion or the handlers.

Ridgway, S. H. 1968. The Bottlenosed Dolphin in Biomedical Research. In: Methods in Animal Experimentation, W.I. Gay (ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 3:387-446.

A broad account of the characteristics and behavior of the bottlenosed dolphin as they relate to health care and biomedical research.

Ridgway, S. H., and J. G. McCormick. 1971. Anesthesia of the Porpoise. In: Textbook of Veterinary Anesthesia, L. R. Soma (ed.). The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, MD, pp. 394-403.

Discusses special considerations on anesthetizing cetaceans, reviews history of atempts at anesthetization and describes a successful technique utilizing halothane as the anesthetic.

Ridgway, S. H., and M. D. Dailey. 1972. Cerebral and Cerebellar Involvement of Trematode Parasites in Dolphins and Their Possible Role in Stranding. Jour. Wildlife Diseases 8:33-43.

Trematode parasites found in the brains of stranded porpoises may offer an explanaion for some cetacean strandings.

Ridgway, S. H., J. R. Geraci, and W. Medway. 1975. Diseases of Pinnipeds. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 196:327-337.

The major disease conditions encountered in pinnipeds are described.

Ridgway, S. H., R. F. Green, and J. C. Sweeney. 1975. Mandibular Anesthesia and Tooth Extraction in the Bottlenosed Dolphin. Jour. Wildlife Diseases 11:415--418.

Describes a technique for anesthetizing the lower jaw for tooth extraction.

Ridgway, S. H. 1977. Brain Abscesses, Flukes, and Strandings. (Abs.) In: Biology of Marine Mammals: Insights Through Strandings, J. B. Geraci and D. J. St. Aubin (eds.). Report prepared for Marine Mammal Commission. Nat’l. Tech. Info. Serv. PB-293-890, pp. 83-84.

Argues that brain abscesses resulting from trematode infestation, which have been found in a number of stranded dolphins, contribute to stranding.

Ridgway, S. H. 1979. Reported Causes of Death of Captive Killer Whales (Orcinus orca). Jour. Wildlife Diseases 15:99-104.

A variety of diseases and other pathologic conditions were found responsible for deaths of captive killer whales. Captive females appeared to have a higher mortality rate than males. Growth rates for whales that died were greater than for those that survived.

Ridgway, S. H. 1983. Dolphin Hearing and Sound Production in Health and Illness. In: Hearing and Other Senses: Presentations in Honor of E. G. Wever, R. R. Fay and G. Gurevich (eds.). Amphora Press, Groton, CN, pp. 247-296.

Review of findings on dolphin hearing, with accounts of modern anatomic and physiologic work on the ear; the brain, evoked potentials, and audition; and evidence that sound production can be used to assess dolphin health and mood.

Ridgway, S.H. 1993. Dolphins in the Care of Humans: A Look Toward the Future. International Marine Biological Research Institute Reports. 4:19-32.

This paper reviews past studies by the author on dolphin care. Current studies are described, and suggestions are made for future scientific endeavors concerning animal care.

Ridgway, S.H. 1993. Delphinoid Cetaceans in Human Care: Toward the 21st Century. Keynote address, 21st Annual IMATA Conf., Kailua-Kona, HI, Nov. 7-12, 1993.

Delphinoid cetaceans (white whales and dolphins) kept in North America are discussed. Suggestions are outlined for future research needs concerning care of these animals.

Ridgway, S.H. and M.L. Reddy. 1995. Conservation: Marine Mammal Health. Proceedings of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Washington, D.C., April 12-14, 1995 .

A presentation made in Washington, D.C. outlining the use of the Navy’s marine mammals to measure baseline levels of organochlorines in the blubber, blood, and milk of healthy reproducing animals for use in conservation strategies in ocean habitats.

Ridgway, S. and M. Reddy. 1995. Residue Levels of Several Organochlorines in Tursiops truncatus Milk Collected at Varied Stages of Lactation. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 30:609-614.

The concentrations of several organochlorines (PCB, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor) were measured in serial samples of milk collected from healthy reproducing Tursiops truncatus. This is the first report of results from analyses of contaminant concentrations of multiple specimens from the same individual.

Romano, T., D.L. Felten, S.H. Ridgway and V. Quaranta. 1995. Cetaceans: Immune Function and Defense Mechanisms. 26th Annual Conf. of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, Mystic, CT, May 16-10, 1995, 26:68.

Discusses features of the cetacean immune system with special reference to cetacean health considerations.

Romano, T.A., S.H. Ridgway, D.L. Felten and V. Quaranta. 1996. The Development of Molecular Markers for Investigation of the Cetacean Immune System. 27th Annual Conf. of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, Chattanooga, TN, May 11-15, 1996, 27:5.

The development and sequence of a beluga CD4-specific marker.

Schroeder, J. P., J. G. Wallace, M. B. Greco, and P. W. B. Moore. 1985. An Infection by Vibrio alginolyticus in an Atlantic Bottlenosed Dolphin Housed in an Open Ocean Pen. Jour. Wildlife Diseases 21:437-438.

Describes the lesions on a dolphin that had a history of skin problems, the culture techniques used to identify the pathogen, and the successful therapy following tests to determine sensitivity of the Vibrio organisms to a variety of antibiotics. Also discusses the susceptibility of humans to infection by Vibrio ssp.

Schroeder, J. P. 1987. Marine Mammal Health Management Based on Immune System Response to Stress and Infectious Disease. (Abs.) Seventh Biennial Conf. on the Biology of Marine Mammals. Society of Marine Mammalogy, Miami, FL., p. 61.

Information on health management of marine mammals based on research at NOSC is presented.

Schroeder, J. P., D. M. Fry, and N. A. Vedros. 1989. Assessment and Management of Response to Stressors of Oil Contamination of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris). (Abs.) Eighth Biennial Conf. on the Biology of Marine Mammals. Society of Marine Mammalogy, Pacific Grove, CA., p. 61.

The immune system response of sea otters to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and identification of acute phase response parameters are linked to management and rehabilitation techniques.

Shinder, D. M. 1983. Separation and Removal of Marine Mammals for Medical Examination. Annual IMATA Conf., Apple Valley, MN, pp. 93-102.

This paper describes four methods for removing dolphins from the water for physical examination. The resources needed and procedures used are presented for crowding, stranding, beaching, and tail presentation.

Simpson, J. G., and W. G. Gilmartin. 1970. An Investigation of Elephant Seal and Sea Lion Mortality on San Miguel Island. Bioscience, March 1, 1970, p. 289.

At the request of state and federal authorities following the Santa Barbara oil spill, an investigation was made to determine if oil washing up on San Miguel Island had affected any of the seals and sea lions there. No evidence was found of illness or mortality attributable to the oil.

Smith, A. W., C. M. Prato; W. G. Gilmartin, R. J. Brown, and M. C. Keyes. 1974. A Preliminary Report on Potentially Pathogenic Microbiological Agents Recently Isolated from Pinnipeds. Jour. Wildlife Diseases 10:54-59.

Leptospira may be one cause of reproductive failure (abortion) in California sea lions and fur seals. Certain virus isolations from sea lions and fur seals appeared indistinguishable from vesicular exanthoma, a swine virus, which is known to cause abortion in swine. Pinnipeds may constitute a reservoir for virus diseases that infect terrestrial mammals.

Smith, A. W., N. A. Vedros, T. G. Akers, and W. G. Gilmartin. 1978. Hazards of Disease Transfer from Marine Mammals to Land Animals: Review and Recent Findings. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 173:1131-1133.

Certain disease agents, bacterial and viral, are widespread in a variety of marine mammals, and some are transmissible to a number of terrestrial mammal species.

Smith, A. W., and D. E. Skilling. 1979. Viruses and Virus Diseases of Marine Mammals. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 175:918-920.

Presents information on the kinds of viruses that have been isolated from pinnipeds and cetaceans, and shows, where possible, the relationship of these agents to specific diseases.

Smith, A. W., D. E. Skilling, and S. H. Ridgway. 1983. Calicivirus-induced Vesicular Disease in Cetaceans and Probable Interspecies Transmission. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 183:1223-1225.

A new calicivirus serotype, isolated from a dolphin, was apparently transmitted from the dolphin to a sea lion and from the sea lion to another dolphin.

Smith, A. W., D. E. Skilling, and S. H. Ridgway. 1983. Regression of Cetacean Tattoo Lesions Concurrent with Conversion of Precipitin Antibody Against a Poxvirus. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 183:1219-1222.

Tattoo lesions linked to cetacean poxvirus in bottlenosed dolphins regressed without treatment. Regression was concurrent with antibody conversion.

Stevens, M.G. and W.G. Miller. 1995. Antigenic Characterization of a Brucella Species Isolated from a Bottlenose Dolphin. 76th Conf. of Research Workers in Animal Diseases, Chicago, IL, Nov. 1995.

The antigens of Brucella delphini (proposed name for this bacterium) were characterized. Results indicate that B. delphini contain a <20kDa antigenic protein which is shared with other smooth and rough strains of Brucella. This protein may be useful in developing a diagnostic antibody test for determining the prevalence of antibody to Brucella in dolphins and other marine mammals.

Suer, L. D., N. A. Vedros, J. P. Schroeder, and J. L. Dunn. 1988. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. II. Enzyme Immunoassay of Sera from Wild and Captive Marine Mammals. Dis. Aquat. Orgs. 5: 7-13.

An enzyme immunoassay was developed and used on sera from marine mammals. Wild bottlenosed dolphins had lower antibody levels than captive, vaccinated cetaceans. Antibody levels in wild and captive pinnipeds varied. Possible explanations for erratic and low antibody levels observed are discussed.

Sweeney, J. C. 1974. Transfusion of Homologous and Heterologous Red Blood Cells (Washed And Unwashed) in the California Sea Lion. Annual American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conf., pp. 131-135.

Red blood cells tagged with 51cr were used to compare the longevity of homologous and heterologous (sheep) transfused cells. The sheep cells were quickly removed from circulation.

Sweeney, J. C. 1974. Common Diseases of Pinnipeds. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 165(9):805-810.

Discusses the various diseases found in seals, sea lions, and walruses.

Sweeney, J. C. 1974. Procedures for Clinical Management of Pinnipeds. Jour. Am Vet. Med. Assn. 165(9):811-814.

Describes clinical approach to diagnoses, treatment techniques, surgical procedures, dietary problems, and physical injuries.

Sweeney, J. C., and W. G. Gilmartin. 1974. Survey of Diseases in Free-Living California Sea Lions. Jour. Wildlife Diseases 10:370-376.

Presents data on 51 California sea lions that stranded on southern California beaches and were examined by necropsy. Includes comments on the diagnosis and treatment of the more commonly found diseases.

Sweeney, J. C., and S. H. Ridgway. 1975. Procedures for the Clinical Management of Small Cetaceans. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 167:540-545.

Methods for the treatment of disease and injury in small cetaceans.

Sweeney, J. C., and S. H. Ridgway. 1975. Common Diseases of Small Cetaceans. Jour. Am. Vet. Assn. 167:533-540.

Brief descriptions of commonly encountered disease conditions.

Sweeney, J. C., G. Migaki, P. M. Vainik, and R. H. Conklin. 1976. Systemic Mycoses in Marine Mammals. Jour. Am Vet. Med. Assn. 169 (9):946-948.

Thirty-four cases of systemic mycosis were represented by nine genera of fungi. All were characterized by pulmonary involvement.

Sweeney, J. C. 1977. Intratracheal Injection of Antibiotics in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Jour. Wildlife Diseases 13:49-54.

Gentamycin and cephaloridine were administered by intratracheal injections, and uptake and clearance in the blood were monitored. In all cases, absorption through the respiratory mucosa resulted in blood levels approaching therapeutic concentrations despite low dosages.

Sweeney, J. C. 1977. Difficult Births and Neonatal Health Problems in Small Cetaceans. In: Breeding Dolphins: Present Status. Suggestions for the Future, S. H. Ridgway and K. Benirschke (eds.). A report to the Marine Mammal Commission. Nat’l. Tech. Info. Serv. PB-273 673, pp. 278-287.

Analysis of records of stillbirths, difficulties in labor (dystocias), and neonatal health problems and mortalities, with conclusions and recommendations.

Sweeney, J. C. 1977. Diagnosis of Pregnancy in Small Cetaceans with Doppler Sonography and Other Techniques. In: Breeding Dolphins: Present Status. Suggestions for the Future, S. H. Ridgway and K. Benirschke (eds.). A report to the Marine Mammal Commission. Nat’l. Tech. Info. Serv. PB-273 673, pp. 211-216.

Discusses electronic devices and various techniques by which pregnancy and fetal viability can be determined.

Townsend, F.I. and S.H. Ridgway. 1995. Kidney Stones in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Composition, Diagnosis and Therapeutic Strategies. 26th Annual Conf. of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, Mystic, CT, May 16-10, 1995, 26:2.

Ultrasonography was used to diagnose renal calculi in a Tursiops truncatus. This outlines suggested therapies and strategies for treating kidney stones in Tursiops.

Van Bonn, W. 1995. Mission Accomplishment: Current Status of Clinical Veterinary Services, U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program. 26th Annual Conf. of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, Mystic, CT, May 16-10, 1995, 26:80.

Paper describes the status of the Navy's marine mammal population and preventive medicine program.

Van Bonn, W. 1995. Captive Cetaceans. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 206 (2):155-156.

A letter to the editors regarding captive cetaceans and military working animals.

Van Bonn, W., S. Ridgway and B. Williams. 1995. Chronic Refractory Emesis Associated with a Colonic Lesion in a California Sea Lion Zalophus californianus. Jour. Zoo. and Wildlife Medicine. 26 (2):286-292.

A case report describing an unusual presentation of large bowel disease in a California sea lion and medical treatments attempted.

Van Dyke, D. 1972. Contingency Rations for California Sea Lions. NUC TP 317, 7 pp.

Describes the formulation and testing of a prepared ration that may be fed exclusively for at least 4 weeks.

Van Dyke, D., and S. H. Ridgway. 1977. Diets for Marine Mammals. In: Handbook of Nutrition and Food, M. Rechcigl (ed.). CRC Press, Cleveland, OH, pp. 595-598.

Diets and caloric intakes of various marine mammals are described.

Williams, T.M., S.F. Shippee and M.J. Rothe. 1996. Strategies for Reducing Foraging Costs in Dolphins. In: Aquatic Predators, S. Greenstreet and M.L. Tasker (eds.) Blackwell Science Ltd., London, pp. 4--9.

Discusses a study of energetic costs associated with, and restricting time for, foraging. This effort addresses energy costs of locomotion, thermoregulation and digestion for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and concludes their behaviors to reduce these costs benefit foraging animals by conserving limited oxygen reserves during a dive.

 

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