SSC San Diego TD 627 Revision D,
Annotated Bibliography of Publications from the U.S. Navy's Marine Mammal Program, May 1998


Blanchard, R. E. 1975. Development of a Selection Procedure for Marine Mammal Trainers. NUC TP 490, 70 pp.

Describes a program of personnel research leading to a selection procedure for marine mammal trainers.

Bowers, C. A., and R. E. Austin. 1983. Capture, Transport, and Initial Adaptation of Beluga Whales. NOSC TR 811, 16 pp.

Describes techniques used in the capture, transport, and handling and feeding of six belugas, three captured in 1977 and three in 1980. The first three took over three months to complete adaptation. The second three, which benefited from techniques developed with the first group, reached the same stage in less than 2 months.

Duffield, D. A., S. H. Ridgway, and R. S. Sparkes. 1967. Cytogenetic Studies of Two Species of Porpoise. Nature 213:189-190.

The diploid chromosome number for a male and female Tursiops truncatus and for two males and one female Lagenorhynchus obliquidens was found to be 44. There were no obvious differences in the karyotypes of the two species.

Evans, W. E., J. D. Hall, A. B. Irvine, and J. S. Leatherwood. 1972. Methods for Tagging Small Cetaceans. Fish. Bull. 70 (1): 61-65.

Describes tests of four techniques for tagging delphinids: plastic button tags, spaghetti tags, radio tags, and freeze branding.

Goforth, H.W. 1986. Marine Mammal Capabilities: A Survey of Selected Cetaceans andPinnipeds. NRaD TR 1000. 138 pp.

Reports on an evaluation of characteristics of selected species of cetaceans and pinnipeds to determine potential for use as research animals. Employing six rating characteristics, recommends eight species for potential research study.

Haun, J.E., H.O. Porter, L.W. Bivens and T.J. LaPuzza. 1996. The U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program: A Brief History and Description of its Operational Systems. (Abs.). 24th Annual IMATA Conf., Gold Coast, Australia, Nov. 3-8.

Reports on the Navyís program to use marine mammals both for research and in operational systems.

Kastelein, R., J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nachtigall. 1996. Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals. DeSpil Publishers, Woerden, The Netherlands, 588 pp.

This volume was the result of the third consecutive symposium solely devoted to aquatic mammals sensory systems. It was held at the Harderwijk marine mammal park in the spring of 1994. Nearly 400 pages were devoted to acoustics and hearing. Contributions came from all parts of the world including China, Japan, Russia, Israel, Canada, the United States and New Zealand. It is a review and summary of ongoing sensory processes work with marine mammals.

LaPuzza, T.J. 1996. Mammiferi Marines (A Brief History of the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program). Cetacea Informa. 5 (9): 17-21.

A description of the history and present status of the program, with details on current operational systems. (Italian and English)

Leatherwood, J. S., W. E. Evans, and D. W. Rice. 1972. The Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific: A Guide to Their Identification in the Water. NUC TP 282, 175 pp.

A guide, with descriptions and illustrations, for identifying cetaceans found in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.

Leatherwood, J. S., and D. W. Beach. 1975. A California Gray Whale Calf (Eschrictius robustus) Born Outside the Calving Lagoons. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 74 (1): 45-46.

The birth of a living calf was observed off San Diego, far north of the lagoons where calving normally occurs.

Leatherwood, J. S., D. K. Caldwell, and H. E. Winn. 1976. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises of the Western North Atlantic. NOAA TR NMFS CIRC-396, 176 pp.

A field guide to permit identification of cetaceans seen in the western North Atlantic, including the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and coastal waters of the U.S. and Canada. Includes a key to aid in identification of stranded cetaceans, as well as appendices telling to whom to report data on live and dead cetaceans.

Reddy, M. (ed). 1991. Cetacean Transport Standard Operating Procedure. NOSC TM 637, 10 pp.

Details proper care and procedural protocols for dolphin transports.

Ridgway, S. H., H. J. Flanagan, and J. G. McCormick. 1966. Brain-Spinal Cord Ratio in Porpoises: Possible Correlations with Intelligence and Ecology. Psychon. Sci. 6 (11): 491-492.

It has been suggested that brain weight-to-spinal cord weight ratios may provide a rough index of intelligence in vertebrate animals. This ratio in the bottlenosed porpoise average 40:1, as compared to the 50:1 ratio in man.

Ridgway, S. H. 1966. Dall Porpoise, Phocaenoides dalli (True): Observations in Captivity and At-Sea. Norwegian Whaling Gazette, No. 5, pp. 97-110.

Describes the natural history, capture, recorded sounds, and anatomy of Dallís porpoises, three of which were maintained at the Navyís Marine Bioscience Facility for periods ranging from 26 days to 10 months. No members of this species had previously survived in captivity.

Ridgway, S. H., and R. J. Harrison (eds.). 1981. Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 1: The Walrus, Sea Lions, Fur Seals, and Sea Otter. 236 pp. Academic Press, London.


Ridgway, S. H., and R. J. Harrison (eds.) 1981. Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 2: Seals. 364 pp. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.


Ridgway, S. H., and R. J. Harrison (eds.). 1985. Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 3: The Sirenians and Baleen Whales. 362 pp. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.


Ridgway S. H., and R. J. Harrison (eds.). 1989. Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 4: River Dolphins and Larger Toothed Whales. Academic Press, London.

In the above volumes, chapters on the various species include taxonomy, evolution, morphology and anatomy, abundance and life history, behavior, reproduction, and diseases. (Although not derived from the Navyís Marine Mammal Program, these works are included because senior editor Ridgway drew on the extensive knowledge gained from his participation in the program since its inception.)

Ridgway, S.H. and R.J. Harrison (eds.). 1994. Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 5: The First Book of Dolphins. Academic Press, London, 416 pp.

This is a continuation of the book series describing the biology of each marine mammal species. Each chapter is by an author who is an expert on that particular species. This book covers many of the smaller dolphins.

Ridgway, S. H., and H. O. Porter. 1985. Biology of Navy Dolphins Tursiops (Abs.) Sixth Biennial Conf. on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Society for Marine Mammalogy, Vancouver, B.C., p. 3.

Summarizes the kind of biological information that can be obtained from captive Tursiops.

Ridgway, S.H. 1987. The Dolphin Doctor. Yankee Books, 160 pp. (hardcover); 1988. Fawcett, New York, 195 pp. (paperback).

Although not written as a scientific publication from the Navy Marine Mammal Program, this book documents the authorís personal experiences in the early days of the program at Point Mugu, California. The author especially emphasizes his experiences with Tuffy, a dolphin that worked with the aquanauts in the Sea Lab II program in 1965.

Ridgway, S. H. 1989. Navy Marine Mammals. (Letters to the Editor) Science. 243: 875.

Letter corrects inaccurate statements in a news item in Vol. 242, pp. 1503-1504 on the Navy Marine Mammal Program and especially concerning Navy dolphins deployed to the Persian Gulf in 1987/1988.

Ridgway, S.H. and S.E. Moore. 1995. Marine Mammal Science and U.S. Navy Ship Shock Trials. Marine Mammal Science. 11 (4):590-593.

Scientific correspondence describing the use of Navy expertise and knowledge of marine mammals to monitor ship-shock trials.

Ridgway, S.H. (ed). 1996. Final Report from the Right Whale Necropsy Assessment Team: Results, Analysis, and Recommendations. NRaD TD 2934, 51 pp.

This document presents necropsy results, analysis, and recommendations of a panel of scientific experts convened to investigate the deaths of as many as six endangered right whales, Eubalaena glacialis. In one case, the cause of death was determined to be impact by an unidentified ship. The causes of death could not be determined in the other cases, due, in part, to inadequate necropsy protocols for large whales. Included is a draft report from a workshop to coordinate large whale stranding response in the southeast U.S., as well as recommendations for developing protocols to facilitate detailed evaluation of similar future incidents.

Ridgway, S.H., E. Lindner, K. A. Mahoney and W.A. Newman. 1996. Gray Whale Barnacles Cryptolepas rachianecti Infest White Whales, Delphinapterus leucas, Housed in San Diego Bay. 27th Annual Conf. of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, Chattanooga, TN, May 11-15, 1996, 27:43.

This paper describes the annual attachment of gray whale barnacles to white whales in San Diego Bay. The attachment is concurrent with the northward migration of gray whales and is the first report of this barnacle on a different whale species.

Ridgway, S.H., E. Lindner, K. A. Mahoney and W.A. Newman. 1997. Gray Whale Barnacles Cryptolepas rachianecti Infest White Whales, Delphinapterus leucas, housed in San Diego Bay. Bulletin of Marine Science. 61 (2): 377-385.

Describes the annual attachment of gray whale barnacles to white whales in San Diego Bay. The attachment is concurrent with the northward migration of gray whales and is the first report of this barnacle on a different whale species.

Shippee, S.F., F.I. Townsend, F.L. Deckert, D.L. Gates and O.M. Alcalay. 1995. A Tracking and Monitoring System for Free Swimming Dolphins Using a Trac-Pac Dorsal Fin Tag. 23rd Annual IMATA Conf., Tacoma, WA, Nov. 26, 1995.

Describes NRaD work with a commercial company in development of noninvasive dorsal fin pack designs for short-term attachment of electronic recording, monitoring and tracking equipment to free swimming dolphins.

Squire, I. 1964. A Bibliography of Cetacea: Literature Published Between 1949 and 1963. NOTS TP 3686, 118 pp.


Steele, J. W. 1971. Marine Environment Cetacean Holding and Training Enclosures. NUC TP 227, 25 pp.

Describes construction details of three types of marine-holding facilities for cetaceans: a permanent wood piling and galvanized-wire fencing enclosure, a permanent concrete-steel piling and fencing enclosure, and a floating pen supported by steel drums.

Van Bonn, W. 1995. What Did They Do With Those Dolphins? The Explorer Newsletter, Cabrillo National Monument, San Diego, CA, 4:6-7.

Solicited article for the newsletter of the monumentís Historical Society, providing information about the Navy's Marine Mammal Program and progress since moving the animal enclosures from the ocean to the bayside of the Pt. Loma peninsula.

Wood, F.G. 1973. Marine Mammals and Man: The Navyís Porpoises and Sea Lions. R.B. Luce Publishers, Washington, D.C. 264 pp.

A non-technical account of the Navyís Marine Mammal Program, with considerable background information on porpoises. Topics include capture and care, sonar, intelligence and communication, deep diving, hydrodynamics, and open ocean work.

Wood, F. G. 1979. The Cetacean Stranding Phenomenon: A Hypothesis. In: Biology of Marine Mammals: Insights Through Strandings, J. B. Geraci and D. J. St. Aubin (eds.). Report prepared for Marine Mammal Commission. Natíl. Tech. Info. Serv. PB-293 890, pp. 129-188.

Discusses previous explanations of live strandings, presents stranding data, details circumstances of many strandings, and proposes that stranding may be attributed to a subcortical response to stress originating in amphibious ancestors and persisting to this day, despite its apparently maladaptive nature.

Wood, F. G. 1983. Annotated Bibliography of Publications from the U.S. Navyís Marine Mammal Program. NOSC TD 627, 49 pp.

Provides list of publications with short summary for each publication.

Wood, F. G. 1985. Annotated Bibliography of Publications from the U.S. Navyís Marine Mammal Program. NOSC TD 627, Revision A, 56 pp.

Provides updated list of publications since 1983 with short summary of each publication.

Wood, F. G. 1987. Annotated Bibliography of Publications from the U.S. Navyís Marine Mammal Program. NOSC TD 627, Revision B, 60 pp.

Provides updated list of publications since 1985 with short summary of each publication.