OPEN SEA RELEASE
- Bailey, R. E. 1965. Training and Open Sea Release of an Atlantic
bottlenosed Porpoise Tursiops truncatus (Montagu). NOTS TP 3838, 17
- Describes the first open water release of a trained porpoise.
- Bowers, C. A., and R. S. Henderson. 2972. Project Deep Ops: Deep
Object Recovery with Pilot and Killer Whales. NUC TP 306, 86 pp.
- Killer whales and pilot whales were conditioned to locate and mark
or recover cylindrical objects containing acoustic beacons that had
been placed on the ocean floor. The two killer whales deployed
practice recovery devices at maximum depths of 500 and 850 feet. A
pilot whale deployed the device at 1654 feet, and on one occasion
apparently made a volunteered dive (without the device) to 2000 feet.
- Conboy, M. E. 1972. Project Quick Find: A Marine Mammal System for
Object Recovery. NUC TP 268, Rev. 1, 31 pp.
- Sea lions were trained to attach a nosecup-mounted grabber device
to "pingered" Objects on the ocean floor so that the objects (e.g.,
test ordnance, oceanographic instruments) can then be hauled to the
surface by a line attached to the grabber. The system has been
demonstrated to depths of 500 feet.
- Evans, W. E., and S. R. Harmon. 1968. Experimenting with Trained
Pinnipeds in the Open Sea. In: The Behavior and Physiology of
Pinnipeds, pp. 196-208, ed. R. J. Harrison et al.,
Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, NY.
- Details training procedures and results of deep-diving studies
using seals and sea lions.
- Hall, J. D. 1970. Conditioning Pacific White-striped Dolphins
(Lagenorhynchus obliguidens) for Open-ocean Release. NUC TP 200, 14
- Pacific white-striped dolphins were, for the first time, trained
for open sea release.
- Irvine, B. 1970. Conditioning Marine Mammals to Work in the Sea.
Marine Tech. Soc. Jour. 4(3):47-52.
- Describes training procedures for open sea release.
- Marcus, S. R. 1972. Turk, the Sea Lion, Helps the Navy: Project
Quick Find. Naval Ordnance Bulletin, March 1972, pp. 36-39.
- A nontechnical article on the recovery of an instrumented ASROC
depth charge by a sea lion. See Conboy, 1972, referenced above.
- Ridgway, S. H. 1966. Studies on Diving Depth and Duration in
Tursiops truncatus. Proc. 1966 Conf. Biol. Sonar and Diving Mammals,
151-158. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, California.
- Describes technique by which a bottlenosed porpoise was trained to
dive to depths down to 550 feet and perform other tasks in preparation
for participation in Sealab I1. Total dive time to 550 feet and back
averaged 163 seconds.
- Ridgway, S. H. 1969. Sea Lion Recovery Float. NUC TP 134, 5 pp.
- To prevent sea lions from diving and swimming away during open sea
training, a gas-generator float was developed employing a
water-soluble washer as a timer and release mechanism, and a small
balloon for flotation.
- Ridgway, S. H., and C. C. Robinson. 1985. Homing by Released
Captive California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) Following
Release on Distant Islands. Can. Jour. Zool. 63:2162-2164.
- Discusses the return of captive male sea lions to San Diego
breeding islands 115 km and 240 km off shore. Results suggest that sea
lions are good navigators.
- Wood, F. G., and S. H. Ridgway. 1967. Utilization of Porpoises in
the Man-In-The-Sea Program. In: ONR Report ACR-124. An Experimental
45-Day Undersea Saturation Dive at 205 feet, pp. 407-411.
- At Sealab II a bottlenosed dolphin named Tuffy was trained to
carry objects between the surface and aquanauts working on the ocean
floor. He also demonstrated his ability to carry a line from the
habitat to a "lost" aquanaut. The conditioning of Tuffy and details of
his transports to and from the Sealab site are described.
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